A rule of etiquette may reflect an underlying ethical code , or it may reflect a person's fashion or status. Rules of etiquette are usually unwritten, but aspects of etiquette have been codified from time to time. Baldassare Castiglione was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author, who is probably most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier.
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In centuries since then, many authors have tried to collate manners or etiquette guide books. One of the most famous of these was Emily Post who began to document etiquette in She later established an institute which continues to provide updated advice on how to negotiate modern day society with good manners and decorum. However, all note that to be a well-mannered person one must not merely read their books but be able to employ good manners fluidly in any situation that may arise.
How Rude! The etiquette of business is the set of written and unwritten rules of conduct that make social interactions run more smoothly. Office etiquette in particular applies to coworker interaction, excluding interactions with external contacts such as customers and suppliers. When conducting group meetings in the United States, the assembly might follow Robert's Rules of Order , if there are no other company policies to control a meeting. These rules are often echoed throughout an industry or economy. Both office and business etiquette overlap considerably with basic tenets of netiquette , the social conventions for using computer networks.
Business etiquette can vary significantly in different countries, which is invariably related to their culture. For example: A notable difference between Chinese and Western business etiquette is conflict handling. Chinese businesses prefer to look upon relationship management to avoid conflicts  — stemming from a culture that heavily relies on guanxi personal connections — while the west leaves resolution of conflict to the interpretations of law through contracts and lawyers.
Adjusting to foreign etiquettes is a major complement of culture shock , providing a market for manuals. In , a group of etiquette experts and international business group formed a non-profit organization called IITTI pronounced as " ET " to help human resource HR departments of multinationals in measuring the etiquette skills of prospective new employees during the recruitment process by standardizing image and etiquette examination, similar to what ISO does for industrial process measurements.
Etiquette in retail is sometimes summarized as "The customer is always right. There are always two sides to the case, of course, and it is a credit to good manners that there is scarcely ever any friction in stores and shops of the first class. Salesmen and women are usually persons who are both patient and polite, and their customers are most often ladies in fact as well as "by courtesy.
It is, in fact, only the woman who is afraid that someone may encroach upon her exceedingly insecure dignity, who shows neither courtesy nor consideration to any except those whom she considers it to her advantage to please. Etiquette is dependent on culture ; what is excellent etiquette in one society may shock another. Etiquette evolves within culture. The Dutch painter Andries Both shows that the hunt for head lice illustration, right , which had been a civilized grooming occupation in the early Middle Ages, a bonding experience that reinforced the comparative rank of two people, one groomed the other, one was the subject of the groomer, had become a peasant occupation by The painter portrays the familiar operation matter-of-factly, without the disdain this subject would have received in a 19th-century representation.
Etiquette can vary widely between different cultures and nations. For example, in Hausa culture, eating while standing may be seen as offensively casual and ill-omened behavior, insulting the host and showing a lack of respect for the scarcity of food—the offense is known as "eating with the devil" or "committing santi.
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Traditionally, if guests do not have leftover food in front of them at the end of a meal, it is to the dishonour of the host. In the United States of America, a guest is expected to eat all of the food given to them, as a compliment to the quality of the cooking.
However, it is still considered polite to offer food from a common plate or bowl to others at the table. In such rigid hierarchal cultures as Korea and Japan, alcohol helps to break down the strict social barrier between classes. It allows for a hint of informality to creep in. It is traditional for host and guest to take turns filling each other's cups and encouraging each other to gulp it down. For someone who does not consume alcohol except for religious reasons , it can be difficult escaping the ritual of the social drink. Etiquette is a topic that has occupied writers and thinkers in all sophisticated societies for millennia, beginning with a behavior code by Ptahhotep , a vizier in ancient Egypt's Old Kingdom during the reign of the Fifth Dynasty king Djedkare Isesi c.
All known literate civilizations, including ancient Greece and Rome, developed rules for proper social conduct. Confucius included rules for eating and speaking along with his more philosophical sayings.
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Early modern conceptions of what behavior identifies a " gentleman " were codified in the 16th century, in a book by Baldassare Castiglione , Il Cortegiano "The Courtier" ; its codification of expectations at the court of Urbino remained in force in its essentials until World War I. Louis XIV established an elaborate and rigid court ceremony, but distinguished himself from the high bourgeoisie by continuing to eat, stylishly and fastidiously, with his fingers. An important book about etiquette is Il Galateo by Giovanni della Casa ; in fact, in Italian , etiquette is generally called galateo or etichetta or protocollo.
In the American colonies, Benjamin Franklin and George Washington wrote codes of conduct for young gentlemen. The immense popularity of advice columns and books by Letitia Baldrige and Miss Manners shows the currency of this topic. Even more recently, the rise of the Internet has necessitated the adaptation of existing rules of conduct to create Netiquette , which governs the drafting of e-mail, rules for participating in an online forum, and so on.
In Germany, many books dealing with etiquette, especially dining, dressing etc. However, this book is about good manners and also about the social state of its time, but not about etiquette. Etiquette may be wielded as a social weapon. The outward adoption of the superficial mannerisms of an in-group, in the interests of social advancement rather than a concern for others, is considered by many a form of snobbery , lacking in virtue.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Etiquette disambiguation. For Wikipedia's guidelines on etiquette, see Wikipedia:Etiquette. For other uses, see Manners disambiguation. It is not to be confused with Courtesy. Main article: Politeness.
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First published 25 February accessed 30 November Retrieved August 9, Eibl-Eibisfeldt and F. Salter, eds. Aunger R, Rabie T. Evolution and Social Psychology. Merchant, Ed. English tr. London: Preface Publishing. New York: William Morrow. Boston: G. New York: W. London: Profile Books Ltd.
nsinorilop.gq Grab Bag. Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Fall FYI Magazine August. Sharon was a rising start at IBM. After a long span of promotions and top performance reviews, her career changed with one of IBM's Vice Presidents choose to cut the number of employees at the company. My department was cut and it was time to decide what I would do next in my life. I got certified as an Etiquette trainer and was off and running.