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Audible Download Audio Books. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. Instead of degrees, the compass card Compass card Magnetic marine compasses have the magnets fastened to a circular card which has the directions on it.

The Navigator: Traversing the Deep by MR A H Fleming -

The whole card rotates and a mark on the compass housing called a lubber line indicates direction. Read More , on which directions were drawn or printed, showed the points of the compass, including north, south, east, and west. There are 32 points of the compass, the four main quadrants Quadrant An astronomical instrument for measuring angles with a quarter circle graduated arc. The seaman's quadrant, or simple quadrant, was the earliest instrument used by navigators for measuring the altitude of a heavenly body.

Other instruments not strictly quadrants have also been called such. The backstaff may be called Davis Quadrant. The octant was originally called Hadley's quadrant. Columbus noticed that, as one sailed across the Atlantic Ocean, the variation Magnetic North and Variation Magnetic north is one of two points on the globe where the line of total magnetic force is vertical and towards which the magnetic needle points in all adjoining regions. Variation also called magnetic declination is the difference in direction between true north as determined by the earth's axis of rotation and magnetic north as determined by the earth's magnetism.

Read More between magnetic north and true north True North The direction of the North Pole from any place on the earth's surface, through which all meridians of longitude pass on maps and charts. Read More changed. On future trips he used this to predict, roughly, his arrival in America. The next most important tool was the chip log Chip log Device used in the past on sailing vessels for measuring the rate of speed of the vessel. A quarter circle quadrant of wood, or "chip," fastened to a line, was allowed to run out over the stern, and the amount of line run was measured in time with a half minute sand glass.

The sand glass replaced counting the seconds. Read More , introduced in the late 16th century to measure speed. The chip, a quarter circle of wood, was attached to a light line on a reel. One knot is equal to one nautical mile 6, feet per hour. The term comes from the knots on the line of a chip log. Because the earth is not a perfect sphere, the length of a nautical mile varies somewhat according to latitude.

Read More in an hour, when the chip was dropped overboard. With a or second sand glass Sand glass sandglass A means of measuring time on board ship before the development of reliable clocks for ships.

The Navigator - Traversing The Deep

Two vacuum globes connected by a narrow neck, allowing sand to run from the top globe into the bottom one in a given period of time. Read More , navigators could see how fast the vessel was going by counting how many knots rolled out before the sandglass expired. Before the chip log, navigators estimated speed by timing how long a chip of wood in the water would take to pass from bow to stern. Compass and log helped navigators keep track of position. They used a lead line Lead line A means of finding the depth of water near coasts and probably the earliest device used by coastal navigators to facilitate safe navigation.

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It consists of a hemp line with a lead weight attached about 7 pounds. Read More to determine water depth and bottom type. A heavy piece of lead at the end of a long marked line had a cavity in its bottom, which, when coated with grease or tallow, brought up a bottom sample. Experienced navigators often could determine position based on whether the bottom was muddy, sandy, pebbly, rocky, or covered with vegetation or shell fragments.

Crossing the Atlantic, navigators used the lead line to find the continental shelf, and, more importantly, find the Grand Banks Grand Banks A large shallow area, rich in fish, located in the North Atlantic off Newfoundland. Read More and other fishing grounds. Read More. The board had a line of holes radiating from the center towards each of the 32 compass points. The navigator then used traverse tables to add these and give an average course for a four hour watch.

This result then was entered into a logbook along with information about the weather, changes in sails, and items concerning the crew. The seventeenth century navigator had little published information. Charts Chart A nautical map giving navigation information, including: water depth; shoals, rocks, and other dangers; and aids to navigation such as lighthouses, buoys, and beacons.

Charts use special symbols and abbreviations to convey information for mariners. Mercator Mercator, Gerardus Gerardus Mercator By spring of , his crew mutinied. Once they were free of the ice, the mutineers set Hudson and those loyal to him adrift in a small boat before the mutineers returned to England. Hudson was never seen again. The ships vanished. Nineteenth century reports from local Inuit suggested the men may have resorted to cannibalism as they trekked on foot across the ice. Cut marks on the bones support the cannibalism claims.

McClure confirmed the existence of the route when his crew became the first to traverse the Northwest Passage—by ship and over the ice on sled—in Yet it would be more than fifty years before Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen would make the entire passage by sea.

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The entire route was ice-free for the first time in recorded history in the summer of Traffic through the Arctic sea route has increased in the past decade. In , a record 30 ships made the transit.

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Crystal Serenity , a luxury cruise ship, made headlines in when it became the first tourist cruise ship to navigate the Northwest Passage. Less ice means that marine species once separated by the North American continent are now able to cross from ocean to ocean with greater ease.

In , two gray whales—native to the Pacific Ocean—were spotted in the Atlantic Ocean for the first time in more than years. Experts think the Pacific whales may have made their way through the open waters of the Northwest Passage and the Arctic Ocean into the Atlantic. Increased access to the route has stirred up a decades-old debate over who controls the Arctic waters.

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  • Canada claims parts of the passage as its own territorial waters, while the U. The Franklin Expedition; Parks Canada. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Lawrence River would later enable France to Henry Hudson made his first voyage west from England in , when he was hired to find a shorter route to Asia from Europe through the Arctic Ocean. After twice being turned back by ice, Hudson embarked on a third voyage—this time on behalf of the Dutch East India Company—in